General Dyeing Principles, Definitions of terms used in dyeing e.g. solution, dispersion, substantivity, affinity, adsorption, absorption-. Simple explanations of chemical bonds; i.e. ionic, hydrogen, covalent, van-der-Waal.
Wool And Nylon Comparison of their structure and chemistry, Directional Frictional Effect of wool.
Scouring Reasons for and principles of, scouring wool and nylon.
Detergency And Surfactants
Theory of detergency. Soaps, synthetic detergents i.e. anionic, nonionic, cationic and amphoterics.
Wool and nylon
Wool and nylon. Yellowing of wool.
Reasons for, and principles of, milling. Types of milling; carbonizing of wool.
Dyeing Of Wool And Nylon
Brief survey of dye classes used i.e. equalizing, milling, super milling, chrome dyes, 1:1 and 1:2 metal complex dyes and reactive dyes. pH and temperature conditions used for the various types of dyestuff. Rates of dyeing; emphasis on dye bath control to ensure optimum levelness. Definitions of liquor ratio, on mass of goo4, simple calculations for dyeing recipes.
Its importance in ensuring reproduction in bulk.
Dye bath Conditions Effect of dye bath conditions on the strength of wool. Importance of the iso-electric point.
Levelling and stripping of dyeings.
Finishing processes used for wool and nylon.